I've experienced everything from a less than 5 minute "so, are we done with your back issue" visit, to an all day, over eight hour experience with a consultation at the end, where the guy says "I don't know what you have, but it's not Rheumatoid Arthritis". The thorough visits involve interviewing the patient, examining the patient and maybe having them do a few movement "tests". Bloodwork is almost always done, and not just for AI stuff. You might also do a "pee" test of one form or another.
My old hematologist was probably the best doctor I've had, with my current pcp a close 2nd, in that they explain what they're doing and why, and when they go over the test results, they'll explain the significance of the different results and how they relate to each other. As ItsLupus2007 mentions, it can take a while to get a diagnosis, but in many cases, if a doctor suspects a particular "family" of disease, they are able to prescribe some meds that can "cover the bases" and start getting a patient some relief, while the "final" diagnosis is studied for further. I use the quote marks for "final", because I've been given a certain diagnosis by one doctor, and had the next one say "no, it's not that".
There is a "stickie" thread around here somewhere that mentions all the different AI diseases there are. There are quite a few, and a lot of them share some very similar symptoms, which some of those symptoms happen to be similar to other things. You mention "shocks" that scare you. They're ruled out MS, but did they check your thyroid or maybe your B12 levels? Either of those can cause very similar issues, and are easy enough to check for with blood work and by the doctor "listening" to the patient. So take all your info with you, and be sure that if the doc wants to keep something you have, that either you've already got yourself a copy, or they make one for you. Also, take notes however you can. My wife goes with me to most of my appointments anymore, and uses her "smart" phone (but she's still the smart one) to either do voice records, or takes notes and puts things on the calendar. I'd be a mess without her help.
"There but for the grace of God, go I."
"... His mercy endureth for ever."