There are many parts to the ANA test and reading the lab results can be confusing. Two of the major parts are the "Titer" and the "Pattern". Here is information that I found while researching this answer for you:
The titer is a ratio that expresses the number of times the technician had to dilute the plasma from the blood before the antibodies could no longer be detected. In other words, a titer of 1:40 would mean that the antibodies were last detected when 1 part of the blood was diluted with 40 parts of either water or saline. The higher the second number the higher the concentration of antibodies. Since the amount of dilution fluid is doubled the titers can increase rapidly from 1:40 to 1:80 to 1:160 to 1:320 to 1:640 and so on. Antibodies fluctuate in concentration during the course of disease and a high or low titer does NOT indicate the level of disease activity and can not reliably be used to determine disease activity level. However, the higher the titer, the more likely an autoimmune disease is present.
ANA shows up on indirect immunofluorescence as fluorescent patterns in cells that are fixed to a slide that is evaluated under a microscope. Different patterns have been associated with a variety of auto immune disorders
, although overlap may occur. Some of the more common patterns include:
Rim / Peripheral - found almost exclusively in people with Systemic Lupus Eurythematosus.
Homogenous / Smooth - found in high titers in SLE, also found in and other autoimmune diseases, also the most commonly found pattern in healthy individuals
Speckled - found in SLE, mixed connective tissue disease, Sjogren's, Scleroderma
Diffuse - non-specific pattern
Nucleolar - found in Scleroderm, CREST Syndrome, systemic sclerosis, and sometimes SLE or Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Centromere - found in PSS with CREST Syndrome, polymyositis, Raynaud's Syndrome
The fact that you have a "speckled" pattern alone indicates the possibility of Lupus. The differentiation between the types of speckled patterns only narrow that possiblity down further.
For example: say that 30% of all lupus patients have a speckled pattern. 60% have fine, 70% have fine dense, or 100% have coarse (PLEASE NOTE: These are not official numbers, just my way of explaining!). The particular differentiation is not imperative if doctors find other indicators in lab restults, symptoms, etc.
I hope that this was helpful to you
Peace and Blessings